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We know Picotechnology is now not later as we have done it for 20 years and well aware of the benefits. 3 working papers on picotechnology and their conclusion the same its futuristic!

Looking forward picotechnology, No Its here now!

Nanotechnology and picotechnology to increase tissue growth

Conclusion 1 from 1st paper

There is extremely little research on Picotechnology it seems although we have been doing it 20 years. I was able to find these conclusiions that might support each other! Lastly, this paper will emphasize a new field, picotechnology, in which researchers are altering electron distributions around atoms to promote surface energy to achieve similar increased tissue growth, decreased inflammation, and inhibited infection without potential nanomaterial toxicity concerns. A potentially less toxic method that is used to increase tissue growth and create the next generation of tissue engineering materials is to use Picotechnology. Picotechnology is a new term used to describe the control of electron distribution around atoms, so as to provide desirable properties. Having control over electron distribution may greatly change surface energy and, thus, the way that proteins adsorb onto a material. Therefore, through the excitement or rearrangement of electrons around atoms, one has the ability to influence many cellular functions including cell movement, intracellular transport to organelles, adhesion, growth, and ECM formation. The promise of picotechnology.

Despite the promise of picotechnology, relatively little research has been conducted in this field. The control of cellular microtubules (MTs) through picotechnology is extremely interesting to consider. MTs s are cylindrical cellular formations 25 nm in diameter, and they are made out of tubulins. Dynamic instability due to MT plus end-binding proteins, also called “plus end-tracking proteins”, are able to “surf” the dynamic ends of MTs. According to recent reports, when tips are expressed as green fluorescent proteins, the fluorescence is the brightest at the MT and decreases in intensity toward the minus end of the MT, forming a comet tail. It is envisioned that one could use external stimulation to excite the MT and end-binding proteins to promote the movement of cells using picotechnology. This may be a less toxic manner through which to alter surface energy to increase tissue growth since electron distributions can be changed for numerous macro-, micro-, or nanomaterials. Future strategies may also include the use of picotechnology instead of nanotechnology to reduce the toxicity since electrons can be excited in any macro-, micro-, or nanomaterials. The change in electron distribution, along with the associated charge redistribution, can alter surface energetics to change the adsorption of certain proteins (as well as cellular functions).

Emerging Trends of Nanotechnology towards Picotechnology Energy

Conclusion 2 from 2nd paper!

The concept of pico scale of measurement in physics, environment, biology and chemistry is highlighted with examples of metal ions, climatic conditions, and bioassemblies. The integrated monitoring using picoscope and monitoring oscilloscope for use in proteins linked with metals in supramolecular macromolecules is described with potentials of picomolar science. The temperature, humidity and electricity and their regulatory factors play a significant role in biomedical, automotive actions of biomolecules in the environment. The proteins and their regulatory metal cofactors play a significant role in structural-functional actions of biomolecules in the body. Picodevices have paved the way to determine minute amounts of metabolites, hormones, nucleotides. Picochips and pico-inspired biological applications remain further attraction in future. Overall picotechnology remains to see as most powerful computation device in data simulation in physical, biological, engineering and environmental applications

This Riken Skin Growing Could Revolutionize Grafting.

A diagram of skin, showing hair follicles, sweat pores and other parts of the organ.

Last year, in a lab in Japan, a mouse grew hair.

That may not sound like much of an accomplishment for a mouse, but it was an extraordinary feat for the scientists watching it. For the first time, skin grown in a lab and then transplanted onto a mouse was doing all the things skin is needed to do — produce sweat, secrete protective oils, grow hair.

In a study published in the journal Science Advances scientists from Japan’s RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology detail how they were able to craft fully functional skin from stem cells made from the gums of mice. When transplanted onto mice with suppressed immune systems, the skin integrated well and even made connections with surrounding nerve and muscle tissue.

Though they’re a good five to 10 years away from replicating the same technique in humans, the scientists say it has the potential to revolutionize skin grafts, which currently rely on skin taken from other parts of the body or still-flawed artificial skin. The former poses medical challenges, and the latter lacks the ability to grow hair or produce oils like normal skin — which, at best, makes the grafts look different from the rest of the body, and at worst can be a health hazard.

We are coming ever closer to the dream of being able to recreate actual organs in the lab for transplantation,” lead author Takashi Tsuji said in a We are coming ever closer to the dream

The project took advantage of a technique discovered in 2006 that allows researchers to genetically reprogram any old cell and turn it into a stem cell (technically known as an “ induced pluripotent stem cell This meant that cells taken from the mice’s gums could then be guided down a different developmental pathway using a chemical signal. When transplanted onto other mice, the skin developed normally to form the various layers of skin responsible for the organ’s diverse functions.

That’s vital, because skin is more than just the packaging that keeps our innards from hanging out all over the place. The body’s largest organ is a thermostat, a producer of vitamins and lubricant, an energy warehouse and a bulwark against infection, not to mention one of our best sources of information about the world around us.

Many of those functions are eliminated in the current skin transplant process. The grafted skin can’t regulate temperature as well, since it doesn’t have the ability to produce sweat (which cools the body as it dries). Grafted skin also lacks sebaceous glands — many patients have to oil their skin constantly to keep it from drying out. And if the grafted skin doesn’t link up with muscle and nerve cells, one of our most sensitive sensory organs is rendered inert.

The researchers didn’t test whether the skin would work in mice without suppressed immune systems, and New York University dermatology chair Seth Orlow noted to U.S. News and World Report that the process the Japanese researchers used to develop the cells may be too “laborious” to be feasible for significant human transplants.

But John McGrath, a professor of molecular dermatology at King’s College London, told the BBC that researchers in his field had been waiting for this kind of study.

“It’s recapitulating normal skin architecture,” he said. “So rather than having isolated bits of skin [that don’t serve every function] … here we’ve actually got a whole box of stuff.”

If it works for humans, lab-grown skin developed by Tsuji and his colleagues has the potential to help burn victims and people who suffer from some forms of hair loss and other medical conditions, Orlow told U.S. News and World Report

Beyond that, he added, “research like this is important because it is one step in a long journey of steps to eventual extraordinary therapies that lie ahead.”

Transitioning from Nanomedicine to Picomedicine
What’s on the Horizon ? Thomas J. Webster
Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA

Statement of Purpose: Inspired from biological systems, nanotechnology has already revolutionized medicine including improving the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of numerous diseases. This talk will summarize efforts over the past decade that have synthesized novel nanoparticles, nanotubes, and other nanomaterials to improve medicine. Efforts focused on the use of nanomaterials to minimize immune cell interactions, inhibit infection, and increase tissue growth will be especially emphasized. Tissue systems covered will include the nervous system, orthopedics, bladder, cardiovascular, vascular, and the bladder. Due to complications translating in vitro to in vivo results, only in vivo studies will be emphasized here. Materials to be covered will include ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites thereof. Self-assembled nano-chemistries will also be emphasized. However, while significant promise has been made in using nanomaterials in medicine, particularly regenerative medicine, some problems remain (such as toxicity and manufacturing). This talk will further provide the latest concerning nanoparticle toxicity and manufacturing issues. Moreover, this talk will also introduce a new research direction in picotechnology which may generate materials even better for medicine that what nanotechnology has accomplished.

Methods: For orthopedic applications, numerous 3D tissue engineering scaffolds have been fabricated using polymers, ceramics, and metals. Osteoblast (bone forming cells) functions including adhesion (up to 4 h), proliferation (up to 5 days) and differentiation (up to 21 days) on different 3D tissue engineering scaffold topographies were systematically investigated [1]. Moreover, using a standard rat-calvarial defect model, 3D tissue engineering scaffolds were implanted and topographical effects on bone formation assessed. Similar studies have been conducted for cartilage applications using chondrocytes (cartilage producing cells) and rabbit osteochondral in vivo assays.

For anti-cancer implications, nanopatterned poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 50:50 PLG/PGA, wt%) 3D surfaces with similar surface chemistry but different topographies have been fabricated. Nanopatterned PLGA substrates were investigated for their ability to inhibit numerous cancer cell functions, including osteosarcoma, breast epithelial adenocarcinoma cell (MCF-7), and lung epithelial cancer cell adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion using standard techniques [2].

For cardiovascular applications, 3D PLGA:carbon nanofiber (CNF) composites were formulated as a novel type of cardio-patch to promote cardiomyocyte (heart muscle) growth [3]. In this study, PLGA and CNF weight ratio densities were altered to investigate changes in cardiomyocyte functions including adhesion (up to 4 h), proliferation (up to 5 days), and protein (fibronectin and vitronectin) adsorption.

Results: For all materials, traditional methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements verified similar scaffold surface chemistry and wettability but varied topographies. Cytocompatibility in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated enhanced osteoblast functions (including adhesion, proliferation, intracellular protein synthesis, alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular calcium deposition) on nanostructured compared to nano-smooth 3D tissue engineering constructs. An SEM study of osteoblast attachment helped to explain the topographical impact substrates have on osteoblast functions by showing altered ?lopodia extensions and migration rates. Similar results have been observed for cartilage. In a novel manner, efforts have been made develop in situ sensors which can provide real time information on tissue growth.

Nanopatterned PLGA samples for cancer applications demonstrated for the first time significantly decreased cancer cell functions (including decreased proliferation rate, increased apoptosis and decreased VEGF synthesis) on 23 nm featured PLGA surfaces compared to all other PLGA surface topographies fabricated (specifically, nanosmooth and submicron rough 300 and 400 nm surface-featured PLGA surfaces) without the use of chemotherapeutics. In contrast, healthy cells proliferated more on the 23 nm featured PLGA surfaces compared to all other PLGA samples.

For cardiovascular applications, in vitro analysis indicated greater surface area and nanoroughness when increasing CNF ratio amounts until they reached a 25:75 [PLGA:CNF (wt:wt)] ratio where the surface roughness at the nanoscale decreased. Vitronectin and fibronectin adsorption assays showed greater initial adsorption on 3D scaffolds with greater nanoscale roughness which may provide a mechanism for greater cell responses on such nanostructured scaffolds.

In a move towards picotechnology, we have stimulated atoms in nanomaterials to control electron distributions to further increase surface energy. We have seen that through such control at the pico-level, we can achieve the best tissue growth.

Conclusions: Nanostructured polymers, metals, and ceramics promote bone, cartilage, anti-cancer (bone, breast, and lung), and cardiovascular applications. Recent studies controlling electron distributions at the picolevel have further promoted tissue growth.

This what what Pico 1 can do and have done it 20 years. We prevent amputations and eliminated Gangrene in 4 days before treatment! Whats missing from nanotechnology paper after paper is energy that picotechnology gives you. We have it "Energy" and see the skin below since 2004 for skin and wounds.